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Biodiversity and climate change

Reversing the loss in biodiversity

Biodiversity is our planetary support system for life on earth as human health, food, economies and human well being all depend upon nature while ecosystem degradation, loss of habitat and pollution is threatening the existence of up to 1 million species. These topics were discussed at the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in Montreal in December 2022 by delegates from almost 200 countries. To reverse the loss in biodiversity, it was agreed that it was necessary to reduce –

  • Over exploitation of resources
  • Pollution and waste
  • Fragmentation of habitats
  • Unsustainable agricultural practices

The outcome was an updated Framework with 4 goals and 23 targets by 2030. Targets included –

  • Effective conservation and managing of at least 30% of the world’s land, coastal areas and oceans
  • Restoring 30% of degraded terrestrial, inland water, coastal and marine ecosystems
  • Reducing to near zero the loss of areas of high biological importance and ecological integrity like the tropical rain forests
  • Reducing by half, global food waste
  • Phasing out or reform agricultural subsidies that harm biological diversity
  • Providing positive incentives for conserving biodiversity and introducing sustainable agricultural practices
  • Providing support for indigenous people who represent 5% of the world’s population, but protect 80% of the earth’s biodiversity

In addition countries agreed to establish a Global Biodiversity Framework Fund within the Global Environmental Facility as soon as possible to complement existing support and scale up financing to ensure timely implementation of the post 2020 Global Diversity framework.

At the close of the Conference, the United Nations Environment Chief, Inger Andersen, observed ‘We have backed nature into a corner and it is time to ease that pressure for if we give nature half a chance, it will bounce back. Let’s not pause for a second. Embrace the history we have made in Montreal and let’s get down to the business of delivering the Framework’.
[April 2023]



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